Photography is all about capturing light.
All the camera’s settings are measured in ‘stops of light’ and it’s imperative, in my  view, for the photographer to understand the importance light plays in producing dynamic, atmospheric photographs.

Waiting for a few minutes for the light to change before taking a shot can make a world of difference to the finished product.

Photography is all about capturing light.
All the camera’s settings are measured in ‘stops of light’ and it’s imperative, in my  view, for the photographer to understand the importance light plays in producing dynamic, atmospheric photographs.

Waiting for a few minutes for the light to change before taking a shot can make a world of difference to the finished product.

Photography is all about capturing light.
All the camera’s settings are measured in ‘stops of light’ and it’s imperative, in my  view, for the photographer to understand the importance light plays in producing dynamic, atmospheric photographs.

Waiting for a few minutes for the light to change before taking a shot can make a world of difference to the finished product.

Some underpinning knowledge.
If you feel I’m teaching my Grandmother to suck eggs, please forgive me, but I want to emphasise the difference between the sources of white light and artificial light and how the difference between the two affect the reflected light falling on the camera’s sensor.  

Some underpinning knowledge.
If you feel I’m teaching my Grandmother to suck eggs, please forgive me, but I want to emphasise the difference between the sources of white light and artificial light and how the difference between the two affect the reflected light falling on the camera’s sensor.  

Some underpinning knowledge.
If you feel I’m teaching my Grandmother to suck eggs, please forgive me, but I want to emphasise the difference between the sources of white light and artificial light and how the difference between the two affect the reflected light falling on the camera’s sensor.  

Think back to your schooldays; white light is made up from a spectrum of seven visible colours which can be seen reflected in the rainbows we see after a rainstorm.

Think back to your schooldays; white light is made up from a spectrum of seven visible colours which can be seen reflected in the rainbows we see after a rainstorm.

Think back to your schooldays; white light is made up from a spectrum of seven visible colours which can be seen reflected in the rainbows we see after a rainstorm.

When we look at any scene, what we see is reflected light.  Let me try to explain.
Let’s take a tree for example.  The sunlight, (white light), falls on a tree;  the leaves on the tree absorb all seven colours that make up white light, reflecting only  the combination of colours that make up the colour green.  The trunk and branches reflect only the colours that create the greys and browns of the trunk and branches.

When we look at any scene, what we see is reflected light.  Let me try to explain.
Let’s take a tree for example.  The sunlight, (white light), falls on a tree; the leaves on the tree absorb all seven colours that make up white light, reflecting only  the combination of colours that make up the colour green.  The trunk and branches reflect only the colours that create the greys and browns of the trunk and branches.

When we look at any scene, what we see is reflected light.  Let me try to explain.
Let’s take a tree for example.  The sunlight, (white light), falls on a tree;  the leaves on the tree absorb all seven colours that make up white light, reflecting only  the combination of colours that make up the colour green.  The trunk and branches reflect only the colours that create the greys and browns of the trunk and branches.

Beginner.

Photography is all about capturing light.
All the camera’s settings are measured in ‘stops of light’ and it’s imperative, in my  view, for the photographer to understand the importance light plays in producing dynamic, atmospheric photographs.

Waiting for a few minutes for the light to change before taking a shot can make a world of difference to the finished product.

This section is for those of you who are absolute beginners to photography or those who only shoot in the camera’s auto mode and want to progress further.
.

Waiting for a few minutes for the light to change before taking a shot can make a world of difference to the finished product.

This section is for those of you who are absolute beginners to photography or those who only shoot in the camera’s auto mode and want to progress further.

Light

Light.

Each of the seven colours in the visible spectrum occupy a specific percentage of the spectrum to return, when blended, the colour white.
Any artificial light source that emits a light where one of the colours doesn't follow the exact percentage of daylight, will produce a white light with a hue to it.

In natural daylight, when we look at a white card we’ll see the colour white.
When we look at the same card under fluorescent light, again, we’ll see the colour white, yet a camera will show the white has a green hue to it.

Each of the seven colours in the visible spectrum occupy a specific percentage of the spectrum to return, when blended, the colour white.
Any artificial light source that emits a light where one of the colours doesn't follow the exact percentage of daylight, will produce a white light with a hue to it.

In natural daylight, when we look at a white card we’ll see the colour white.
When we look at the same card under fluorescent light, again, we’ll see the colour white, yet a camera will show the white has a green hue to it.

Each of the seven colours in the visible spectrum occupy a specific percentage of the spectrum to return, when blended, the colour white.
Any artificial light source that emits a light where one of the colours doesn't follow the exact percentage of daylight, will produce a white light with a hue to it.

In natural daylight, when we look at a white card we’ll see the colour white.
When we look at the same card under fluorescent light, again, we’ll see the colour white, yet a camera will show the white has a green hue to it.

This is because fluorescent light is emitted with a deficit of blue in the visible colour spectrum that we see in the rainbow, returning the green hue.

Similarly, incandescent light will return the colour white with a red hue to it, for the same reasons of imbalance in the colour spectrum in the source light.

This is because fluorescent light is emitted with a deficit of blue in the visible colour spectrum that we see in the rainbow, returning the green hue.

Similarly, incandescent light will return the colour white with a red hue to it, for the same reasons of imbalance in the colour spectrum in the source light.

This is because fluorescent light is emitted with a deficit of blue in the visible colour spectrum that we see in the rainbow, returning the green hue.

Similarly, incandescent light will return the colour white with a red hue to it, for the same reasons of imbalance in the colour spectrum in the source light.

The camera doesn't have the same processing power as our brain and will return a reflected light based on the imbalanced source light seen through the lens.

The camera doesn't have the same processing power as our brain and will return a reflected light based on the imbalanced source light seen through the lens.

The camera doesn't have the same processing power as our brain and will return a reflected light based on the imbalanced source light seen through the lens.

Now let's turn to exposure.

Now let's turn to exposure.

Now let's turn to exposure.

Exposure.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

Exposure

Exposure.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

Exposure.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

The light meter in any DSLR measures the light reflected back from the subject in front of the camera and is programmed to view what is seen through the lens tonally, from the darkest black to the whitest white.   

The camera measures the light coming into the receptor, mixes it all up tonally and returns an 18% grey which is the half way from black to white.
The middle tone, 18% grey, is calculated to produce the correct exposure of light, from the reflected light of the subject, onto the camera’s sensor.  

Aperture Priority.

Exposure can be controlled either in whole, (manual mode), or in part, (aperture priority ), setting on the camera.
The aperture is a hole in the lens which can be made bigger or smaller, allowing more, or less light to fall on the sensor.

In Aperture priority mode, which is semi automatic, you set the aperture, focus on the subject, and the camera calculates everything else to get a good exposure.

There is an explanation of all the buttons and features on a modern DSLR, in PDF format for downloading or printing, under the 'Back to Basics' link.

Exposure cont.

Shutter Priority

The Shutter Priority mode, also known as the shutter speed, again semi-automatic, is a curtain across the sensor which opens and closes to let light through to the sensor.  

You set the shutter speed and the camera calculates everything else for a good exposure.  The exposure for both these methods are based on the white balance of the camera.

Manual

Manual Mode is where you take complete control of the camera, setting all three elements of the exposure triangle to get a good exposure.

All modes, aperture, shutter and manual are dependent on the third aspect  of the exposure triangle, which is the sensor’s sensitivity to light, called the ISO.

The balance between these three elements is also known as reciprocity.

I would urge the beginner to familiarise themselves with the camera operations, either from here or their user manual, to progress further.

Shutter Priority

The Shutter Priority mode, also known as the shutter speed, again semi-automatic, is a curtain across the sensor which opens and closes to let light through to the sensor.  

You set the shutter speed and the camera calculates everything else for a good exposure.  The exposure for both these methods are based on the white balance of the camera.

Manual

Manual Mode is where you take complete control of the camera, setting all three elements of the exposure triangle to get a good exposure.

All modes, aperture, shutter and manual are dependent on the third aspect  of the exposure triangle, which is the sensor’s sensitivity to light, called the ISO.

The balance between these three elements is also known as reciprocity.

I would urge the beginner to familiarise themselves with the camera operations, either from here or their user manual, to progress further.

Shutter Priority

The Shutter Priority mode, also known as the shutter speed, again semi-automatic, is a curtain across the sensor which opens and closes to let light through to the sensor.  

You set the shutter speed and the camera calculates everything else for a good exposure.  The exposure for both these methods are based on the white balance of the camera.

Manual

Manual Mode is where you take complete control of the camera, setting all three elements of the exposure triangle to get a good exposure.

All modes, aperture, shutter and manual are dependent on the third aspect  of the exposure triangle, which is the sensor’s sensitivity to light, called the ISO.

The balance between these three elements is also known as reciprocity.

I would urge the beginner to familiarise themselves with the camera operations, either from here or their user manual, to progress further.

Understanding your camera

Understanding your camera

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Understanding your camera

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Understanding your camera

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Using Aperture Priority practice what happens to the depth of field, (what’s in focus), throughout the range of apertures from largest to smallest.  (Note how the shutter speed changes  when the aperture is changed)

Do the same using the Shutter  priority setting, altering the shutter speed by one stop between shots. (Note how the aperture changes when the shutter speed is increased).  This really is a case of practice makes perfect.

Again, take a number of shots, increasing the ISO by one stop each time and note the resulting noise in the finished image. You will see the higher the ISO the more noise generated.

Once you are familiar with the cameras  buttons and knobs, to further familiarise yourself with the camera,  I would suggest that you take a shot in the automatic mode.

Make a note of the settings, switch to manual mode and try to replicate the image by setting the camera up with the same settings manually.  (Look up how to get the settings to show in camera from your manual.)

When shooting landscapes you will want the distance in focus, so rather than closing the aperture to f/11 - f/16, learn about Hyperfocal Distance, allowing you greater scope for increasing your shutter speed.

Focusing Modes
Image is not available

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

21 point automatic focusing.

When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points
makes detection easier.

21 point automatic focusing.

When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points
makes detection easier.

21 point automatic focusing.

When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points
makes detection easier.

Image is not available
Image is not available
Image is not available

39 point automatic focusing.
When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 39 points
makes detection easier.

39 point automatic focusing.
When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 39 points
makes detection easier.

39 point automatic focusing.
When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 39 points
makes detection easier.

3-D tracking.

The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses colour information from the 1,005-pixel RGB sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

3-D tracking.
The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses colour information from the 1,005-pixel RGB sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

3-D tracking.
The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses colour information from the 1,005-pixel RGB sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

Auto Area AF
Uses colour information which is extremely helpful when there’s simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

Auto Area AF
Uses colour information which is extremely helpful when there’s simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

Auto Area AF
Uses colour information which is extremely helpful when there’s simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

Image is not available
Image is not available

Focusing Modes

Focusing Modes

Auto Area AF
Uses colour information which is extremely helpful when there’s simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

Auto Area AF
Uses colour information which is extremely helpful when there’s simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

Single point automatic focusing.

With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Single point automatic focusing.
With good light control and a static subject, Single Point AF ensures that the most important element in the composition, such as the eyes in a portrait, will be sharply focused.

Image is not available

9 point automatic focusing.
With good light control , Single Point AF ensures that the most important elements in the composition, will be sharply focused.

9 point automatic focusing.
With good light control , Single Point AF ensures that the most important elements in the composition, will be sharply focused.

9 point automatic focusing.
With good light control , Single Point AF ensures that the most important elements in the composition, will be sharply focused.

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21 point automatic focusing.
When dealing with insufficient contrast for fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points makes detection easier.

21 point automatic focusing.

When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points
makes detection easier.

21 point automatic focusing.

When dealing with insufficient contrast for fast focus detection, choosing 21 or 51 points
makes detection easier.

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39 point automatic focusing.
When dealing with insufficient contrast for fast focus detection, choosing 39 points makes etection easier.

39 point automatic focusing.
When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 39 points
makes detection easier.

39 point automatic focusing.
When dealing with insufficient contrast for
fast focus detection, choosing 39 points
makes detection easier.

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3-D tracking.
The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses colour information from the 1,005-pixel RGB sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

3-D tracking.
The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses colour information from the 1,005-pixel RGB sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

3-D tracking.
The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses colour information from the 1,005-pixel RGB sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

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Auto Area AF
Uses colour information which is extremely helpful when there’s simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

3-D tracking.
The 51-point option also allows for 3D Focus Tracking, which uses colour information from the 1,005-pixel RGB sensor to automatically follow moving subjects across the AF points.

Auto Area AF
Uses colour information which is extremely helpful when there’s simply no time to select a focus point, or when using Live View in hand-held mode at high or low angles.

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9 point automatic focusing.
With good light control , Single Point AF ensures that the most important elements in the composition, will be sharply focused.

9 point automatic focusing.
With good light control , Single Point AF ensures that the most important elements in the composition, will be sharply focused.

9 point automatic focusing.
With good light control , Single Point AF ensures that the most important elements in the composition, will be sharply focused.

Metering Modes
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Metering Modes
Spot metering.

Normally in the centre of the frame, and will meter at the focus point.

Spot metering.

Normally in the centre of the frame, and will meter at the focus point.

Spot metering.

Normally in the centre of the frame, and will meter at the focus point.

Centre weighted metering.

Will evaluate the light surrounding the focal point to about 8% of the frame.

Centre weighted metering.

Will evaluate the light surrounding the focal point to about 8% of the frame.

Centre weighted metering.

Will evaluate the light surrounding the focal point to about 8% of the frame.

Matrix metering.
Will meter across the entire frame.

Matrix metering.
Will meter across the entire frame.

Matrix metering.
Will meter across the entire frame.

Spot metering.
Normally in the centre of the frame, and will meter at the focus point.

Spot metering.

Normally in the centre of the frame, and will meter at the focus point.

Spot metering.

Normally in the centre of the frame, and will meter at the focus point.

Centre weighted metering.
Will evaluate the light surrounding the focal point to about 8% of the frame.

Centre weighted metering.

Will evaluate the light surrounding the focal point to about 8% of the frame.

Centre weighted metering.

Will evaluate the light surrounding the focal point to about 8% of the frame.

Matrix metering.
Will meter across the entire frame.

Matrix metering.
Will meter across the entire frame.

Matrix metering.
Will meter across the entire frame.

Metering Modes

Manual Mode

Manual Mode

This is where you take complete control of your camera.

The subject is going to determine what shutter speed you’re going to use.  

Moving objects, such as athletes, cars, birds in flight, aeroplanes and the like are going to need a faster shutter speed to avoid blur.

Once that is set, then the two other elements can be used to get a good exposure.

Let’s assume you want the minimum of noise in your image, so you set the ISO to ISO 200.  All that remains is to set the aperture wide enough to get a good exposure.

The projected exposure is indicated with the exposure bar in your view finder.

The white bar will be either left or right of the Zero, indicating over or under exposure.  
    
Alter the camera settings until the indicator hovers over the Zero.

The same procedure can be applied to stationary objects such as landscapes, static portraits and the like.

Remember, hand held shots with a long lens are more prone to camera shake, therefore a faster shutter speed is need

This is where you take complete control of your camera.

The subject is going to determine what shutter speed you’re going to use.  

Moving objects, such as athletes, cars, birds in flight, aeroplanes and the like are going to need a faster shutter speed to avoid blur.

Once that is set, then the two other elements can be used to get a good exposure.

Let’s assume you want the minimum of noise in your image, so you set the ISO to ISO 200.  All that remains is to set the aperture wide enough to get a good exposure.

The projected exposure is indicated with the exposure bar in your view finder.

The white bar will be either left or right of the Zero, indicating over or under exposure.  
    
Alter the camera settings until the indicator hovers over the Zero.

The same procedure can be applied to stationary objects such as landscapes, static portraits and the like.

Remember, hand held shots with a long lens are more prone to camera shake, therefore a faster shutter speed is need

This is where you take complete control of your camera.

The subject is going to determine what shutter speed you’re going to use.  

Moving objects, such as athletes, cars, birds in flight, aeroplanes and the like are going to need a faster shutter speed to avoid blur.

Once that is set, then the two other elements can be used to get a good exposure.

Let’s assume you want the minimum of noise in your image, so you set the ISO to ISO 200.  All that remains is to set the aperture wide enough to get a good exposure.

The projected exposure is indicated with the exposure bar in your view finder.

The white bar will be either left or right of the Zero, indicating over or under exposure.  
    
Alter the camera settings until the indicator hovers over the Zero.

The same procedure can be applied to stationary objects such as landscapes, static portraits and the like.

Remember, hand held shots with a long lens are more prone to camera shake, therefore a faster shutter speed is need

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What format?
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Portrait
 

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Formats.

So you have your subject, whether that is an animal, a bird, a person, a scene, an insect……whatever.  How do you want to portray that scene to your viewer.  You are the author of the image, so you decide.

 

So you have your subject, whether that is an animal, a bird, a person, a scene, an insect……whatever.  How do you want to portray that scene to your viewer.  You are the author of the image, so you decide.

 

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Square
 

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Shoebox
 

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Landscape
 

Panorama
 

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Reciprocity

Reciprocity is the relationship between:

the  f/stop, (size of  the aperture),

the shutter speed, (the length of time the shutter is open),

the ISO, (the sensor’s sensitivity to light), in order to get a good exposure.  

Reciprocity is the relationship between:

the  f/stop, (size of  the aperture),

the shutter speed, (the length of time the shutter is open),

the ISO, (the sensor’s sensitivity to light), in order to get a good exposure.  

Reciprocity is the relationship between:

the  f/stop, (size of  the aperture),

the shutter speed, (the length of time the shutter is open),

the ISO, (the sensor’s sensitivity to light), in order to get a good exposure.  

All three are measured in ‘stops of light’.

(Aperture is measured in f-stops’ e.g. f/4 or f/2.8 (the length of the focal lens divided by the diameter), and refers to stops of light. The smaller the f/ number the larger the aperture.  I know, I know, this seems back to front  and the guy who thought this up needs a good slapping, however………the maths add up.

The principle regarding reciprocity is quite simple.

If one element is changed, then the other two elements are altered to balance this exposure triangle to achieve a good exposure.

All three are measured in ‘stops of light’.

(Aperture is measured in f-stops’ e.g. f/4 or f/2.8 (the length of the focal lens divided by the diameter), and refers to stops of light. The smaller the f/ number the larger the aperture.  I know, I know, this seems back to front  and the guy who thought this up needs a good slapping, however………the maths add up.

The principle regarding reciprocity is quite simple.

If one element is changed, then the other two elements are altered to balance this exposure triangle to achieve a good exposure.

All three are measured in ‘stops of light’.

(Aperture is measured in f-stops’ e.g. f/4 or f/2.8 (the length of the focal lens divided by the diameter), and refers to stops of light. The smaller the f/ number the larger the aperture.  I know, I know, this seems back to front  and the guy who thought this up needs a good slapping, however………the maths add up.

The principle regarding reciprocity is quite simple.

If one element is changed, then the other two elements are altered to balance this exposure triangle to achieve a good exposure.

Once the perfect exposure has been achieved, opening up the aperture by one stop, (allowing more light to reach the sensor), requires the shutter speed to be reduced by one stop, (reducing the length of time for the light to reach the sensor, to maintain the correct exposure.  

In other words, twice as much light coming in for half the time equals the same exposure.

The one constant in reciprocity is that everything either doubles or halves, as you go up and down the scale and one or two elements  can balance the third to get a good exposure.

Once the perfect exposure has been achieved, opening up the aperture by one stop, (allowing more light to reach the sensor), requires the shutter speed to be reduced by one stop, (reducing the length of time for the light to reach the sensor, to maintain the correct exposure.  

In other words, twice as much light coming in for half the time equals the same exposure.

The one constant in reciprocity is that everything either doubles of halves, as you go up and down the scale and one or two elements  can balance the third to get a good exposure.

Once the perfect exposure has been achieved, opening up the aperture by one stop, (allowing more light to reach the sensor), requires the shutter speed to be reduced by one stop, (reducing the length of time for the light to reach the sensor, to maintain the correct exposure.  

In other words, twice as much light coming in for half the time equals the same exposure.

The one constant in reciprocity is that everything either doubles of halves, as you go up and down the scale and one or two elements  can balance the third to get a good exposure.

Once the perfect exposure has been achieved, opening up the aperture by one stop, (allowing more light to reach the sensor), requires the shutter speed to be reduced by one stop, (reducing the length of time for the light to reach the sensor, to maintain the correct exposure.  

In other words, twice as much light coming in for half the time equals the same exposure.

The one constant in reciprocity is that everything either doubles of halves, as you go up and down the scale and one or two elements  can balance the third to get a good exposure.

Once the perfect exposure has been achieved, opening up the aperture by one stop, (allowing more light to reach the sensor), requires the shutter speed to be reduced by one stop, (reducing the length of time for the light to reach the sensor, to maintain the correct exposure.  

In other words, twice as much light coming in for half the time equals the same exposure.

The one constant in reciprocity is that everything either doubles or halves, as you go up and down the scale and one or two elements  can balance the third to get a good exposure.

Once the perfect exposure has been achieved, opening up the aperture by one stop, (allowing more light to reach the sensor), requires the shutter speed to be reduced by one stop, (reducing the length of time for the light to reach the sensor, to maintain the correct exposure.  

In other words, twice as much light coming in for half the time equals the same exposure.

The one constant in reciprocity is that everything either doubles or halves, as you go up and down the scale and one or two elements  can balance the third to get a good exposure.

The start of the numbers are 1 & 1.4 doubling alternately.

So the sequence would be 1, - 1.4 ,- 2, -2.8, - 4, - 5.6, - 8, - 11, - 16, - 22, - 32; each one being an increase by 1 stop.

The start of the numbers are 1 & 1.4 doubling alternately.

The start of the numbers are 1 & 1.4 doubling alternately.

So the sequence would be 1, - 1.4 ,- 2, -2.8, - 4, - 5.6, - 8, - 11, - 16, - 22, - 32; each one being an increase by 1 stop.

The start of the numbers are 1 & 1.4 doubling alternately.

So the sequence would be 1, - 1.4 ,- 2, -2.8, - 4, - 5.6, - 8, - 11, - 16, - 22, - 32; each one being an increase by 1 stop.

Therefore, f/4 is one stop higher than f/2.8… f/11 is two stops lower than f/22, and so on.

Notice how the smallest the number equates to the largest aperture.  Note also, that the wider the aperture the shallower the depth of field, also known as the focal plane.

Therefore, f/4 is one stop higher than f/2.8… f/11 is two stops lower than f/22, and so on.

Notice how the smallest the number equates to the largest aperture.
Note also, that the wider the aperture the shallower the depth of field, also known as the focal plane.

Therefore, f/4 is one stop higher than f/2.8… f/11 is two stops lower than f/22, and so on.

Notice how the smallest the number equates to the largest aperture.
Note also, that the wider the aperture the shallower the depth of field, also known as the focal plane.

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The shutter speed is much easier to understand than aperture settings and is measured in seconds and fractions of seconds.
Typically for an f/8 shot, the shutter will be 1/250th sec.

The numbers from 1 sec. decrease, (get faster), as follows.

1 sec,  ½ sec, ¼ sec, 1/8 th sec, 1/15 th sec , 1/30 th sec , 1/60 th sec, 1/125 th sec, 1/250 th sec, 1/500 th sec, 1/1000 th sec, 1/2000 th sec, 1/4000 th sec.

Notice the figures decrease by double, in much the same way the f/stops do, obeying the laws of reciprocity.

The camera’s shutter will be closed by default, opening when the you press the button.  The shutter will open for the length of time you, or the camera have set.
A shutter speed of 1/250th sec will open for twice as long  as 1/500th sec, letting in twice  the light.

An underexposed image will need either to have the aperture opened to allow more light in to the sensor, or the shutter speed slowed so that there is a longer exposure to the light.

There is, however, another string to your bow - and that’s the ISO.

The shutter speed is much easier to understand than aperture settings and is measured in seconds and fractions of seconds.
Typically for an f/8 shot, the shutter will be 1/250th sec.

The numbers from 1 sec. decrease, (get faster), as follows.

1 sec,  ½ sec, ¼ sec, 1/8 th sec, 1/15 th sec , 1/30 th sec , 1/60 th sec, 1/125 th sec, 1/250 th sec, 1/500 th sec, 1/1000 th sec, 1/2000 th sec, 1/4000 th sec.

Notice the figures decrease by double, in much the same way the f/stops do, obeying the laws of reciprocity.

The camera’s shutter will be closed by default, opening when the you press the button.  The shutter will open for the length of time you, or the camera have set.
A shutter speed of 1/250th sec will open for twice as long  as 1/500th sec, letting in twice  the light.

An underexposed image will need either to have the aperture opened to allow more light in to the sensor, or the shutter speed slowed so that there is a longer exposure to the light.

There is, however, another string to your bow - and that’s the ISO.

The shutter speed is much easier to understand than aperture settings and is measured in seconds and fractions of seconds.
Typically for an f/8 shot, the shutter will be 1/250th sec.

The numbers from 1 sec. decrease, (get faster), as follows.

1 sec,  ½ sec, ¼ sec, 1/8 th sec, 1/15 th sec , 1/30 th sec , 1/60 th sec, 1/125 th sec, 1/250 th sec, 1/500 th sec, 1/1000 th sec, 1/2000 th sec, 1/4000 th sec.

Notice the figures decrease by double, in much the same way the f/stops do, obeying the laws of reciprocity.

The camera’s shutter will be closed by default, opening when the you press the button.  The shutter will open for the length of time you, or the camera have set.
A shutter speed of 1/250th sec will open for twice as long  as 1/500th sec, letting in twice  the light.

An underexposed image will need either to have the aperture opened to allow more light in to the sensor, or the shutter speed slowed so that there is a longer exposure to the light.

There is, however, another string to your bow - and that’s the ISO.

ISO

ISO (Industry Standard Organisation) is the level of sensitivity to light your sensor is set to.  It’s as simple as that.

Typically, a landscape shot on a summer’s day would be in the region of ISO 200.

ISO, like f/stops and shutter speeds, are measured in stops of light.

 
The range of ISO’s  start at 100 and double through the range.  100, 200, 400, 800.

If you are in a situation where there is insufficient light on the day and you have run out of options with the shutter speed and f/stops, then increasing the ISO will invariably get you out of trouble, allowing a different shutter speed or aperture to claw back a good exposure.

The one draw back from high ISO’s is noise in the finished product, which can be rectified in post processing.

All the information I have given here is based on full stops of light, which is a legacy from  film SLRs, so popular back in the day.

In today’s technology these full stops of light are blunt, frankly.  Modern DSLRs are able to work in half and third stops.

In other words, for every full f/stop, modern cameras will give the option of up to 3 f/stops; every full shutter speed will have up to three options; every full ISO stop, up to three options to choose from, allowing an  ISO of up to ISO  2,400.

I would urge you to use this technology, which gives you more control over your photography by a factor of nine.

ISO (Industry Standard Organisation) is the level of sensitivity to light your sensor is set to.  It’s as simple as that.

Typically, a landscape shot on a summer’s day would be in the region of ISO 200.

ISO, like f/stops and shutter speeds, are measured in stops of light.

 
The range of ISO’s  start at 100 and double through the range.  100, 200, 400, 800.

If you are in a situation where there is insufficient light on the day and you have run out of options with the shutter speed and f/stops, then increasing the ISO will invariably get you out of trouble, allowing a different shutter speed or aperture to claw back a good exposure.

The one draw back from high ISO’s is noise in the finished product, which can be rectified in post processing.

All the information I have given here is based on full stops of light, which is a legacy from  film SLRs, so popular back in the day.

In today’s technology these full stops of light are blunt, frankly.  Modern DSLRs are able to work in half and third stops.

In other words, for every full f/stop, modern cameras will give the option of up to 3 f/stops; every full shutter speed will have up to three options; every full ISO stop, up to three options to choose from, allowing an  ISO of up to ISO  2,400.

I would urge you to use this technology, which gives you more control over your photography by a factor of nine.

ISO (Industry Standard Organisation) is the level of sensitivity to light your sensor is set to.  It’s as simple as that.

Typically, a landscape shot on a summer’s day would be in the region of ISO 200.

ISO, like f/stops and shutter speeds, are measured in stops of light.

 
The range of ISO’s  start at 100 and double through the range.  100, 200, 400, 800.

If you are in a situation where there is insufficient light on the day and you have run out of options with the shutter speed and f/stops, then increasing the ISO will invariably get you out of trouble, allowing a different shutter speed or aperture to claw back a good exposure.

The one draw back from high ISO’s is noise in the finished product, which can be rectified in post processing.

All the information I have given here is based on full stops of light, which is a legacy from  film SLRs, so popular back in the day.

In today’s technology these full stops of light are blunt, frankly.  Modern DSLRs are able to work in half and third stops.

In other words, for every full f/stop, modern cameras will give the option of up to 3 f/stops; every full shutter speed will have up to three options;
every full ISO stop, up to three options to choose from, allowing an  ISO of up to ISO  2,400.

I would urge you to use this technology, which gives you more control over your photography by a factor of nine.

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Focus Stacking

With all macro photography, capturing a moment in time with one shot is going to leave some of the image out of focus, given the shallow depth of field with macro lenses.

Therefore to get the entire subject sharp throughout the focal plane it occupies, focus stacking is the way to go.

Focus on the nearest part of the subject, take a shot and altering the focus point, shoot through the entire depth of the subject with as many shots as is necessary to complete the task.

It's important to remember a tripod is essential if you are doing macro photography and to keep the exposure locked throughout the series of shots to ensure a good fusion.

Using the lens’ focus ring can result in an acceptable image, providing you alter the focusing minutely.  A focus rail will allow you to move the focus point far more accurately.

Extension tubes can be used with an ordinary lens, but a dedicated macro lens will produce a far superior image.

Once the source images have been taken, it's a case of loading them into a focus stacking programme and rendering the source images into a final composite image that is sharp throughout.

With all macro photography, capturing a moment in time with one shot is going to leave some of the image out of focus, given the shallow depth of field with macro lenses.

Therefore to get the entire subject sharp throughout the focal plane it occupies, focus stacking is the way to go.

Focus on the nearest part of the subject, take a shot and altering the focus point, shoot through the entire depth of the subject with as many shots as is necessary to complete the task.

It's important to remember a tripod is essential if you are doing macro photography and to keep the exposure locked throughout the series of shots to ensure a good fusion.

Using the lens’ focus ring can result in an acceptable image, providing you alter the focusing minutely.  A focus rail will allow you to move the focus point far more accurately.

Extension tubes can be used with an ordinary lens, but a dedicated macro lens will produce a far superior image.

Once the source images have been taken, it's a case of loading them into a focus stacking programme and rendering the source images into a final composite image that is sharp throughout.

With all macro photography, capturing a moment in time with one shot is going to leave some of the image out of focus, given the shallow depth of field with macro lenses.

Therefore to get the entire subject sharp throughout the focal plane it occupies, focus stacking is the way to go.

Focus on the nearest part of the subject, take a shot and altering the focus point, shoot through the entire depth of the subject with as many shots as is necessary to complete the task.

It's important to remember a tripod is essential if you are doing macro photography and to keep the exposure locked throughout the series of shots to ensure a good fusion.

Using the lens’ focus ring can result in an acceptable image, providing you alter the focusing minutely.  A focus rail will allow you to move the focus point far more accurately.

Extension tubes can be used with an ordinary lens, but a dedicated macro lens will produce a far superior image.

Once the source images have been taken, it's a case of loading them into a focus stacking programme and rendering the source images into a final composite image that is sharp throughout.

This shot consists of two photographs, each of 90 shots, focus stacked and stitched as a panorama.
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While it's important that both the camera and the subject are absolutely stationary, focus stacking in the wild is more than achievable.

In this shot, the first flower, left of frame, consisted of seven shots throughout its depth.

The flower right of frame consisted of nine shots. Each sequence of shots were then stacked resulting in two photographs which were then combined into a panorama.

While it's important that both the camera and the subject are absolutely stationary, focus stacking in the wild is more than achievable.

In this shot, the first flower, left of frame, consisted of seven shots throughout its depth.

The flower right of frame consisted of nine shots. Each sequence of shots were then stacked resulting in two photographs which were then combined into a panorama.

While it's important that both the camera and the subject are absolutely stationary, focus stacking in the wild is more than achievable.

In this shot, the first flower, left of frame, consisted of seven shots throughout its depth.

The flower right of frame consisted of nine shots. Each sequence of shots were then stacked resulting in two photographs which were then combined into a panorama.

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Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure, .  Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure, .  Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

Automatic White Balance
Automatic White Balance
Automatic White Balance

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure.

 Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure.

 Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure.

 Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

White Balance

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

White Balance

Typical camera white  balance settings include Auto, Incandescent, Fluorescent, Direct sunlight, Flash, Cloudy and shade.

These work exactly as you'd expect - you simply choose the appropriate setting for your shooting conditions and the camera will do the work of making white objects appear white.

Image is not available

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure, .  Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure, .  Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

Automatic White Balance
Automatic White Balance

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure.

 Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

Let me try to explain this in layman’s terms.

Let’s turn our attention to light for a moment.  Too much light falling on the camera's sensor would make the resultant image white, (overexposed), while too little light would make the image black, (under exposed).

White balance is calculated to provide the base, (which is exactly half way between total black and total white), for the camera to work from regarding exposure.

 Once this base is established, we are then able, using the camera’s controls, to manipulate exposure to suit the lighting conditions to get a well exposed image.

May I ask the question.  How many times have you taken a photograph only to find it has a red/green/blue cast to it?  Do you know what’s caused it?

The answer is incorrect white balance for the given light at the time of shooting.

In simple terms, light is made up of the seven primary colours seen in the rainbow, each colour occupying a percentage of the visible colour spectrum.

White Balance

For situations where the white balance presets won't do, most cameras also come with a Custom White Balance setting. In this mode you begin by taking a photo of a white object (a sheet of white paper or a professional white balance card) under the lighting conditions of your scene.

Then you just tell your camera to use that image as its white balance reference, by going into the menu and selecting White Balance Preset Manual, from the shooting menu, (Nikon).  

The options given will  be ‘Measure’ and ‘Use Photo’.  If you select ‘Measure’, you will need to take a shot of the white card.  If you select ‘use photo’, use the shot of the white card taken previously.  The shot must be taken under the lighting conditions you’re shooting in.

Then all photos taken under those conditions will come out correctly balanced.  Remember, you have to reset the white balance when you start shooting in daylight again.  

For situations where the white balance presets won't do, most cameras also come with a Custom White Balance setting. In this mode you begin by taking a photo of a white object (a sheet of white paper or a professional white balance card) under the lighting conditions of your scene.

Then you just tell your camera to use that image as its white balance reference, by going into the menu and selecting White Balance Preset Manual, from the shooting menu, (Nikon).  

The options given will  be ‘Measure’ and ‘Use Photo’.  If you select ‘Measure’, you will need to take a shot of the white card.  If you select ‘use photo’, use the shot of the white card taken previously.  The shot must be taken under the lighting conditions you’re shooting in.

Then all photos taken under those conditions will come out correctly balanced.  Remember, you have to reset the white balance when you start shooting in daylight again.  

For situations where the white balance presets won't do, most cameras also come with a Custom White Balance setting. In this mode you begin by taking a photo of a white object (a sheet of white paper or a professional white balance card) under the lighting conditions of your scene.

Then you just tell your camera to use that image as its white balance reference, by going into the menu and selecting White Balance Preset Manual, from the shooting menu, (Nikon).  

The options given will  be ‘Measure’ and ‘Use Photo’.  If you select ‘Measure’, you will need to take a shot of the white card.  If you select ‘use photo’, use the shot of the white card taken previously.  The shot must be taken under the lighting conditions you’re shooting in.

Then all photos taken under those conditions will come out correctly balanced.  Remember, you have to reset the white balance when you start shooting in daylight again.  

Image is not available
Image is not available

For situations where the white balance presets won't do, most cameras also come with a Custom White Balance setting. In this mode you begin by taking a photo of a white object (a sheet of white paper or a professional white balance card) under the lighting conditions of your scene.

Then you just tell your camera to use that image as its white balance reference, by going into the menu and selecting White Balance Preset Manual, from the shooting menu, (Nikon).  

The options given will  be ‘Measure’ and ‘Use Photo’.  If you select ‘Measure’, you will need to take a shot of the white card.  If you select ‘use photo’, use the shot of the white card taken previously.  The shot must be taken under the lighting conditions you’re shooting in.

Then all photos taken under those conditions will come out correctly balanced.  Remember, you have to reset the white balance when you start shooting in daylight again.  

For situations where the white balance presets won't do, most cameras also come with a Custom White Balance setting. In this mode you begin by taking a photo of a white object (a sheet of white paper or a professional white balance card) under the lighting conditions of your scene.

Then you just tell your camera to use that image as its white balance reference, by going into the menu and selecting White Balance Preset Manual, from the shooting menu, (Nikon).  

The options given will  be ‘Measure’ and ‘Use Photo’.  If you select ‘Measure’, you will need to take a shot of the white card.  If you select ‘use photo’, use the shot of the white card taken previously.  The shot must be taken under the lighting conditions you’re shooting in.

Then all photos taken under those conditions will come out correctly balanced.  Remember, you have to reset the white balance when you start shooting in daylight again.  

For situations where the white balance presets won't do, most cameras also come with a Custom White Balance setting. In this mode you begin by taking a photo of a white object (a sheet of white paper or a professional white balance card) under the lighting conditions of your scene.

Then you just tell your camera to use that image as its white balance reference, by going into the menu and selecting White Balance Preset Manual, from the shooting menu, (Nikon).  

The options given will  be ‘Measure’ and ‘Use Photo’.  If you select ‘Measure’, you will need to take a shot of the white card.  If you select ‘use photo’, use the shot of the white card taken previously.  The shot must be taken under the lighting conditions you’re shooting in.

Then all photos taken under those conditions will come out correctly balanced.  Remember, you have to reset the white balance when you start shooting in daylight again.  

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

Paradoxically, you can achieve exactly the same with a professional grey card.

What is a Grey Card?

A grey card is designed to help photographers to adjust their exposure and white balance settings consistently by providing a reference point. This reference point will set a white balance, or colour balance, point for a particular image set and all images captured thereafter.  We aren’t talking about the colour from the scene that has been reflected through the lens, rather than the actual colour of the light you are shooting in.

Why does the Grey Card work?

Essentially, the grey card works because of its lack of colour. Grey is a neutral tone, and even though there are many different shades of grey, the grey used on a grey card is considered to be a “middle grey” (18%),. The middle grey hue makes it easy for the camera to understand a given lighting situation and prescribe the best solution.

Paradoxically, you can achieve exactly the same with a professional grey card.

What is a Grey Card?

A grey card is designed to help photographers to adjust their exposure and white balance settings consistently by providing a reference point. This reference point will set a white balance, or colour balance, point for a particular image set and all images captured thereafter.  We aren’t talking about the colour from the scene that has been reflected through the lens, rather than the actual colour of the light you are shooting in.

Why does the Grey Card work?

Essentially, the grey card works because of its lack of colour. Grey is a neutral tone, and even though there are many different shades of grey, the grey used on a grey card is considered to be a “middle grey” (18%),. The middle grey hue makes it easy for the camera to understand a given lighting situation and prescribe the best solution.

Paradoxically, you can achieve exactly the same with a professional grey card.

What is a Grey Card?

A grey card is designed to help photographers to adjust their exposure and white balance settings consistently by providing a reference point. This reference point will set a white balance, or colour balance, point for a particular image set and all images captured thereafter.  We aren’t talking about the colour from the scene that has been reflected through the lens, rather than the actual colour of the light you are shooting in.

Why does the Grey Card work?

Essentially, the grey card works because of its lack of colour. Grey is a neutral tone, and even though there are many different shades of grey, the grey used on a grey card is considered to be a “middle grey” (18%),. The middle grey hue makes it easy for the camera to understand a given lighting situation and prescribe the best solution.

Paradoxically, you can achieve exactly the same with a professional grey card.

What is a Grey Card?

A grey card is designed to help photographers to adjust their exposure and white balance settings consistently by providing a reference point. This reference point will set a white balance, or colour balance, point for a particular image set and all images captured thereafter.  We aren’t talking about the colour from the scene that has been reflected through the lens, rather than the actual colour of the light you are shooting in.

Why does the Grey Card work?

Essentially, the grey card works because of its lack of colour. Grey is a neutral tone, and even though there are many different shades of grey, the grey used on a grey card is considered to be a “middle grey” (18%),. The middle grey hue makes it easy for the camera to understand a given lighting situation and prescribe the best solution.

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Changing white Balance

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

These colours are present in different percentages in all light sources and is measured as the colour temperature.

Our eyes and brain make a wonderful combination.  When we look at a white object our eyes will automatically adjust to the lighting conditions, so that the object appears perfectly white to us whether we are indoors under a tungsten bulb, a fluorescent tube or out in the bright sunlight.

Not so with a camera.  Fluorescent light has a deficit in the blue range of visible colour in the spectrum returning a green hue to the image. Tungsten will return a red hue to the image.

White balance is the process of giving the  camera a helping hand, so that it can reproduce the whites in the  photo as they should be. Once it gets the white right, all the other colours in the scene fall into place, and we're left with an image that perfectly reproduces what our eyes see.

Camera manufacturers know that their Automatic White Balance (AWB) setting doesn't always get it right, so they also include several white balance presets for us to choose from.

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Hyperfocal Distance

One of the most commonly asked questions regarding depth of field is, ‘How do I get front-to-back sharpness?’

The usual advice for beginners is to focus a third of the way into the scene. This is because depth of field extends twice as far behind the point of focus as in front of it.

Hyperfocal distance - what is it?

Hyperfocal distance is defined as “the distance into the scene, when the lens is focused at infinity, where objects from half of this distance to infinity will be in focus for a particular lens”.

Alternatively, Hyperfocal distance may refer to the closest distance that a lens can be focused for a given aperture while objects at a distance (infinity) remain sharp. The Hyperfocal distance is variable and a function of the aperture and focal length.

In other words, focusing at the optimum focal distance, (73 feet), for a 50 mm lens set at f/5.8, will result in an image that is in focus from 36.5 feet, (half the focal distance), to infinity.

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Depth of Field

Depth of field and focal plane are one and the same thing.

The focal plane is the area of the image, (the depth into the scene), that is in focus - the depth of field.

The depth of field in a photograph is determined by the use of the f/stop.

The larger the aperture, the lesser the focal plane; the smaller the aperture the greater the focal plane.

Not only is the f/stop used to help control exposure, it can also be used for artistry  - the exposure being taken care of with the other two elements of reciprocity.

Depth of field and focal plane are one and the same thing.

The focal plane is the area of the image, (the depth into the scene), that is in focus - the depth of field.

The depth of field in a photograph is determined by the use of the f/stop.

The larger the aperture, the lesser the focal plane; the smaller the aperture the greater the focal plane.

Not only is the f/stop used to help control exposure, it can also be used for artistry  - the exposure being taken care of with the other two elements of reciprocity.

In this image , the focal plane can easily be seen in the tarmac.
This was shot at f/4 giving a very shallow depth of field.  

In poor light, because the shutter was wide open allowing in a lot of light, I was able to shoot at 1/80th sec because the ISO had been set to 100 to get crisp detail with the minimum of noise.

Conversely, setting the aperture to f/10 will allow the focal plane to encompass both the fore and background.

Again the other elements of reciprocity were altered to ensure good exposure.

In this case the ISO set to 100 to reduce noise and the shutter release set at 1/100th sec.

In the image opposite, the focal plane can easily be seen in the tarmac.
This was shot at f/4 giving a very shallow depth of field.  

In poor light, because the shutter was wide open allowing in a lot of light, I was able to shoot at 1/100th sec because the ISO had been set to 100 to get crisp detail with the minimum of noise.

Conversely, setting the aperture to f/10 will allow the focal plane to encompass both the fore and background.

Again the other elements of reciprocity were altered to ensure good exposure.

In this case the ISO set to 100 to reduce noise and the shutter release set at 1/100th sec.

In the image opposite, the focal plane can easily be seen in the tarmac.
This was shot at f/4 giving a very shallow depth of field.  

In poor light, because the shutter was wide open allowing in a lot of light, I was able to shoot at 1/100th sec because the ISO had been set to 100 to get crisp detail with the minimum of noise.

Conversely, setting the aperture to f/10 will allow the focal plane to encompass both the fore and background.

Again, the other elements of reciprocity were altered to ensure good exposure.

In this case the ISO set to 100 to reduce noise and the shutter release set at 1/100th sec.

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So what else does a wide aperture give us?

In a word, Bokeh.  
Taken from the Japanese word Boke, loosely translated as blur, Bokeh refers to the blurred background caused by wide aperture photography.

Bokeh is achieved by using a wide aperture, a long focal length or standing close to the subject, typically a combination of all three.

Wide Aperture:   The  wider the aperture the greater the blur in the background.

Focal length: With telephoto lenses, the longer the length of the lens, the more blurring will occur.

Distance from subject: The closer you are to your subject the more the background will be blurred.

Bokeh can really enhance a photograph, by making the subject stand out and or appear as 3-dimensional.  But as in all things there is both good and bad Bokeh.

So what else does a wide aperture give us?

In a word, Bokeh.  
Taken from the Japanese word Boke, loosely translated as blur, Bokeh refers to the blurred background caused by wide aperture photography.

Bokeh is achieved by using a wide aperture, a long focal length or standing close to the subject, typically a combination of all three.

Wide Aperture:   The  wider the aperture the greater the blur in the background.

Focal length: With telephoto lenses, the longer the length of the lens, the more blurring will occur.

Distance from subject: The closer you are to your subject the more the background will be blurred.

Bokeh can really enhance a photograph, by making the subject stand out and or appear as 3-dimensional.  But as in all things there is both good and bad Bokeh.

So what else does a wide aperture give us?

In a word, Bokeh.  
Taken from the Japanese word Boke, loosely translated as blur, Bokeh refers to the blurred background caused by wide aperture photography.

Bokeh is achieved by using a wide aperture, a long focal length or standing close to the subject, typically a combination of all three.

Wide Aperture:   The  wider the aperture the greater the blur in the background.

Focal length: With telephoto lenses, the longer the length of the lens, the more blurring will occur.

Distance from subject: The closer you are to your subject the more the background will be blurred.

Bokeh can really enhance a photograph, by making the subject stand out and or appear as 3-dimensional.  But as in all things there is both good and bad Bokeh.

Distant Background.

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Close Background.

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When and what aperture to use.

When and what aperture to use.

When and what aperture to use.

Large Aperture

Large Aperture

Large Aperture

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Small Aperture

Small Aperture

Small Aperture

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Composition
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Composition

The composition of a photograph covers three elements

The anatomy of a photograph covers three elements

Background

Subject

Foreground

Background

Subject

Foreground

Background

Subject

Foreground

The background should offer context and maybe contrast, but should not distract attention from the subject.

The subject could be anything you want, a flower, person, object, bird, insect - whatever - even a fall of light.

Foreground ideally leading the viewer into the image, to the subject, offering understated support.

The background should offer context and maybe contrast, but should not distract attention from the subject.

The subject could be anything you want, a flower, person, object, bird, insect - whatever - even a fall of light.

Foreground ideally leading the viewer into the image, to the subject, offering understated support.

The background should offer context and maybe contrast, but should not distract attention from the subject.

The subject could be anything you want, a flower, person, object, bird, insect - whatever - even a fall of light.

Foreground ideally leading the viewer into the image, to the subject, offering understated support.

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The Frame

Once the author has, in his mind’s eye, composed the three elements within the frame, this is the time to step back and reconsider.

I always use a 6 x 4 photo mount to view the scene through.

I have found that compositional errors become glaring when viewed this way. Squint the eyes to check the balance between all the parts of the scene. What lead-in lines will the viewer's eye use to arrive at the subject? Is it what you wanted? If not, what can you change to fix it?

Try viewing from a different position, a lower viewpoint, a step to the left or right.

Look for the balance in any scene, whether that be land, city or seascapes, and practice altering that balance by moving around before you take the shot.

Once the author has, in his mind’s eye, composed the three elements within the frame, this is the time to step back and reconsider.

I always use a 6 x 4 photo mount to view the scene through.

I have found that compositional errors become glaring when viewed this way. Squint the eyes to check the balance between all the parts of the scene. What lead-in lines will the viewer's eye use to arrive at the subject?

Is it what you wanted? If not, what can you change to fix it?

Try viewing from a different position, a lower viewpoint, a step to the left or right.

Look for the balance in any scene, whether that be land, city or seascapes, and practice altering that balance by moving around before you take the shot.

Once the author has, in his mind’s eye, composed the three elements within the frame, this is the time to step back and reconsider.

I always use a 6 x 4 photo mount to view the scene through.

I have found that compositional errors become glaring when viewed this way. Squint the eyes to check the balance between all the parts of the scene. What lead-in lines will the viewer's eye use to arrive at the subject?

Is it what you wanted? If not, what can you change to fix it?

Try viewing from a different position, a lower viewpoint, a step to the left or right.

Look for the balance in any scene, whether that be land, city or seascapes, and practice altering that balance by moving around before you take the shot.

The Frame

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Fill the Frame

Symmetry in a photo will always be pleasing to the eye. Don't forget it can be anything you like, as long as there is symmetry in the elements of the photograph

Symmetry in a photo will always be pleasing to the eye. Don't forget it can be anything you like, as long as there is symmetry in the elements of the photograph

Symmetry in a photo will always be pleasing to the eye. Don't forget it can be anything you like, as long as there is symmetry in the elements of the photograph

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Do away with foreground and background altogether, and fill the frame with your subject.

Do away with foreground and background altogether, and fill the frame with your subject.

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Symmetry in a photo will always be pleasing to the eye. Don't forget it can be anything you like, as long as there is symmetry in the elements of the photograph

Symmetry in a photo will always be pleasing to the eye. Don't forget it can be anything you like, as long as there is symmetry in the elements of the photograph

Symmetry in a photo will always be pleasing to the eye. Don't forget it can be anything you like, as long as there is symmetry in the elements of the photograph

Frame within a frame

Use elements of your scene to frame your subject; can be very effective.

Frame within a frame

Use elements of your scene to frame your subject; can be very effective.

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Diagonals

Using diagonals will add interest to your work. Using straight lines will create static, flat images.

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Diagonals

Using diagonals will add interest to your work. Using straight lines will create static, flat images.

Repetition

We like images with repetitive elements, again pleasing to the eye.

Any image with repetitive elements will always be pleasing to the eye.

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Repitition

Any image with repetitive elements will always be pleasing to the eye.

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All the principles discussed here are relevant in all genres of photography and that's what makes photography so creative, deciding how to present a photograph that gives the most impact.

Over the next few slides I want to discuss the Fibonacci sequence, Rule of Thirds and placing the subject, the use of odd numbers and using Bokeh for effect.

All the principles discussed here are relevant in all genres of photography and that's what makes photography so creative, deciding how to present a photograph that gives the most impact.

Over the next few slides I want to discuss the Fibonacci sequence , Rule of Thirds and placing the subject, the use of odd numbers and using Bokeh for effect.

Repetition

We like images with repetitive elements, again pleasing to the eye.

Repetition

Fibonacci Sequence

Back in the 1700's an Italian mathematician discovered a mathematical ratio that occurred naturally in nature.

Dubbed as 'The Divine Proportions', this sequence was made good use of by the artisan of the day in the composition of their work, from sculptors, artists, composers and architects, as this sequence was aesthetically pleasing to both the ear and eye.

Indeed, the sequence is still used by today's artisans under the name of Phi, (pronounced fee).

From this sequence was borne the compositional rules that we know today.

Fibonacci Sequence

Back in the 1700's an Italian mathematician discovered a mathematical ratio that occurred naturally in nature.

Dubbed as 'The Divine Proportions', this sequence was made good use of by the artisan of the day in the composition of their work, from sculptors, artists, composers and architects, as this sequence was aesthetically pleasing to both the ear and eye.

Indeed, the sequence is still used by today's artisans under the name of Phi, (pronounced fee).

From this sequence was born the compositional rules that we know today.

Fibonacci Sequence
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These are typical examples of the overlays found in the photo-editing software we use today.

By cropping the image so the subject is placed on the converging lines will produce a more aesthetically pleasing image.

Always place the subject so that it has room to 'look', 'lean', 'run', 'fly', into.

So a person looking to the left will be placed in the right of the frame.

These are typical examples of the overlays found in the photo-editing software we use today.

By cropping the image so the subject is placed on the converging lines will produce a more aesthetically pleasing image.

Always place the subject so that it has room to 'look', 'lean', 'turn', into.

So a person looking to the left will be placed in the right of the frame.

These are typical examples of the overlays found in the photo-editing software we use today.

By cropping the image so the subject is placed on the converging lines will produce a more aesthetically pleasing image.

Always place the subject so that it has room to 'look', 'lean', 'turn', into.

So a person looking to the left will be placed in the right of the frame.

Fibonacci Sequence

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Placing the subject.

Here are some examples of placing the subject within a frame, using some of the elements discussed earlier.

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The original shot.

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Notice how the crop has been placed so the stem of the flower enters the frame exactly at the bottom right corner allowing the head of the bee to be placed on the rule of thirds line.

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The finished product

The crop overlay.

Notice how the crop has been placed so the stem of the flower enters the frame exactly at the bottom right corner allowing the head of the bee to be placed on the rule of thirds line.

Here are some examples of placing the subject within a frame, using some of the elements discussed earlier.

The original shot.

The crop overlay.

Notice how the crop has been placed so the stem of the head of the bee to be placed on the rule of thirds line.

The crop overlay.

Placing the subject.

The original shot taken straight from camera. There has been no editing other that reducing the size for the Internet.

Note how the OOF flowers in the foreground give depth to the frame, showing how tiny the subject is.

While there is more detail on the subject, the environment this little lady lives in has been lost.

The original shot taken straight from camera. Note how the OOF flowers in the foreground give depth to the frame, showing how tiny the subject is.

Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

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The original shot taken straight from camera. There has been no editing other that reducing the size for the Internet.

Note how the OOF flowers in the foreground give depth to the frame, showing how tiny the subject is.

While there is more detail on the subject, the environment this little lady lives in has been lost.

Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

While there is more detail on the subject, the environment this little lady lives in has been lost.

Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment.

Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

Odd Numbers.

When out with your camera, try to remember that odd numbers work better than even numbers. This applies to subjects, windows in a building, shadows of railings or whatever else you might come across.

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Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

When out with your camera, try to remember that odd numbers work better than even numbers. This applies to subjects, windows in a building, shadows of railings or whatever else you might come across.

When out with your camera, try to remember that odd numbers work better than even numbers. This applies to subjects, windows in a building, shadows of railings or whatever else you might come across.

Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

Bokeh for Effect

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Bokeh can be used for artistic effect.
Look up 'The Brenizer effect' to see what I mean. This image is a panorama of 24 images taken using Ryan Brenizer's effect to produce a 3-D element.

Bokeh can be used for artistic effect.
Look up 'The Brenizer effect' to see what I mean. This image is a panorama of 24 images taken using Ryan Brenizer's effect to produce a 3-D element.

Bokeh can be used for artistic effect.

Look up 'The Brenizer effect' to see what I mean.

This image is a panorama of 24 images taken using Ryan Brenizer's effect to produce a 3-D element to the photograph.

Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

I offer the last few slides to demostrate how bokeh can accentuate the subject

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Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

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Sometimes you have to decide what exactly you want to convey to the viewer. In this shot, I had the choice to crop for detail or to crop to show the subject's environment. I'll show both - you decide.

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A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

Understanding Sensor Size.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix.

Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

A digital image is made up of tiny, tiny dots of colour, called pixels.

Each camera model will have a different size sensor. The sensor is a light sensitive electronic plate that is essentially a matrix. Each square of that matrix is called a pixel and will record one bit of data.

The sensors in my two cameras are 16.2 Mp (megapixel) and 24.2 Mp. Each Mp is one million pixels.

The 16.2 Mp sensor will produce a 4,928 x 3,264 px image.

The 24.2 mp sensor will produce a 6,000 x 4,000 px image.

It follows then, the greater the Mp sensor size, the more pixels within the physical size of the sensor.

The more pixels in a sensor, the finer the pixel, the greater the definition of the image being stored.

Understanding digital formats
Understanding File Sizes.

The size of an image can be determined in two ways - physical size, measured in Inches, centimetres or pixels, i.e. 10" x 6" and density, the number of the pixels within that physical size.

The more pixels in an image, the greater the density, the finer the definition.

The size of an image can be determined in two ways - physical size, measured in Inches, centimetres or pixels, i.e. 10" x 6" and density, the number of the pixels within that physical size.

The more pixels in an image, the greater the density, the finer the definition.

Lets first look at the different most popular formats for digital imagery.

Raw = raw data. No compression so a large file size. Any photograph taken in RAW has to be post processed, as this is totally raw data. NB. If you are using Nikon, the format will be

Nef = Nikon Electronic Format

Jpeg = Joint Photographic Experts Group. Compressed data. Processes the raw data in camera but compresses the raw data, losing quality. Widely used for the Internet

These are the two that your DSLR deals with.

Understanding File Formats.

The size of an image can be determined in two ways - physical size, measured in Inches, centimetres or pixels, i.e. 10" x 6" and density, the number of the pixels within that physical size.

The more pixels in an image, the greater the density, the finer the definition.

The size of an image can be determined in two ways - physical size, measured in Inches, centimetres or pixels, i.e. 10" x 6" and density, the number of the pixels within that physical size.

The more pixels in an image, the greater the density, the finer the definition.

Understanding File Sizes.

You have a choice when you pick up your camera of which format you shoot in; RAW or Jpeg.

Raw is the uncompressed data that the camera records on its sensor, which is then stored on the SD card. These raw files have to be processed either in camera or on a computer.

If you set the camera to shoot in Jpeg, you are asking the camera to record the data on the sensor and then store it on the SD card in a compressed format that contains the processes of white balance, blackpoint, shadows and highlights among many.

Jpegs are determined by what the camera has seen through the lens. These files, because they're compressed, are much smaller than the RAW files.

Jpegs are chosen by default if you use the fully automatic mode, or any of the special features, such as 'sunsets', 'candlelight', 'snow scenes' and the like.

Understanding formats
Understanding Camera Formats

Because camera manufacturing is so competitive, each camera manufacturer, believing that theirs will be better than their competitors', will have its own format

In order for the computer to be able to read these different formats, the digital editing programs installed on the computer will have what is known as codecs

These codecs will act like an Esperanto and read the different binary formats the camera manufacturers use and convert them into a common format called a DNG, (Digital NeGative).

Because camera manufacturing is so competitive, each camera manufacturer, believing that theirs will be better than their competitors', will have its own format

In order for the computer to be able to read these different formats, the digital editing programs installed on the computer will have what is known as codecs

These codecs will act like an Esperanto and read the different binary formats the camera manufacturers use and convert them into a common format called a DNG, (Digital NeGative).

Because camera manufacturing is so competitive, each camera manufacturer, believing that theirs will be better than their competitors', will have its own format

In order for the computer to be able to read these different formats, the digital editing programs installed on the computer will have what is known as codecs

These codecs will act like an Esperanto and read the different binary formats the camera manufacturers use and convert them into a common format called a DNG, (Digital NeGative).

It's from this DNG format the images can be processed and ultimately saved to a commonly recognised format. (Next slide).

It's from this DNG format the images can be processed and ultimately saved to a commonly recognised format. (Next slide).

It's from this DNG format the images can be processed and ultimately saved to a commonly recognised format.

Understanding File Formats.
These are the most common file formats used for saving images.

Jpeg = Joint Photographic Experts Group. Compressed data. Processes the raw data in camera but compresses the raw data, losing quality. Widely used for the Internet.

Tiff = Tagged Information File Format. Holds a lot of data, but less than RAW. Used for printing hard copies.

Png = PortableNeGative. Used for both printing and computer. PNG's can be made transparent either in whole or in part. Ideal for making composite images.

Gif = Graphics Interchange Format. Used for animations.

Psd = PhotoShop Document. Adobe Photoshop format. Used purely to store files that are work in progress. Retains the entire history of the work taken place to date.
It is to be remembered that any shot taken in the RAW format and subsequently saved as a jpeg is going to be compressed. This compression is known as 'Lossey' as a lot of data will be lost, giving the pixels a blockier look.

Jpeg = Joint Photographic Experts Group. Compressed data. Processes the raw data in camera but compresses the raw data, losing quality. Widely used for the Internet.

Tiff = Tagged Information File Format. Holds a lot of data, but less than RAW. Used for printing hard copies.

Png = PortableNeGative. Used for both printing and computer. PNG's can be made transparent either in whole or in part. Ideal for making composite images.

Gif = Graphics Interchange Format. Used for animations.

Psd = PhotoShop Document. Adobe Photoshop format. Used purely to store files that are work in progress. Retains the entire history of the work taken place to date.

It is to be remembered that any shot taken in the RAW format and subsequently saved as a jpeg is going to be compressed. This compression is known as 'Lossey' as a lot of data will be lost, giving the pixels a blockier look.

See next slide.

Raw vs. Jpeg
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This Jpeg image, right, looks fine when displayed on the Internet, yet when it comes to printing, the two images below demonstrate the difference in quality between an uncompressed image to a compressed image.

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Tiff format (uncompressed).

Jpeg format, (compressed).

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